Standard error is a mathematical tool used in statisticsStatisticsStatistics is a term that is derived from the Latin word status, which means a group of figures that are used to represent information about to measure In other words, it measures how precisely a sampling distribution represents a population. This is otherwise calculated by comparing the F-statistic to an F distribution with regression df in numerator degrees and residual df in Standard Error — provides the estimated standard deviation of the distribution of coefficients. It is the amount by which the coefficient varies across different cases.

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## Calculating Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

Standard error is a mathematical tool used in statisticsStatisticsStatistics is a term that is derived from the Latin word status, which means a group of figures that are used to represent information about to measure In other words, it measures how precisely a sampling distribution represents a population.You can use this Standard Error Calculator to calculate the standard error of the mean for a given set of numbers. Please provide numbers separated by comma (e.g: 1,2,3,4,5), space (e.g: 1 2 3 4 5) or line break and hit the “Calculate” button to see the results.In practice, couldn’t a ARIMA style time series model be used to predict how many people will be waiting in the queue at equidistant time points? So I’ve taken such a long break from my dissertation that tangentially touches on Bayes’s theorem that I’m now confused about how to calculate something.See the steps to calculate percent error. In most cases, absolute error is fine. For example, in experiments involving yields in chemical reactions, it is unlikely you will obtain more If you don’t have an accepted value, the way you express error depends on how you are making the measurement.

How to compute the standard error in R – 2 reproducible example codes – Define In the following, I’ll show you two different example codes for the computation of the standard error in R. The basic installation of R does not provide a predefined function that calculates the standard error of the mean.One can calculate robust standard errors in R in various ways. However, one can easily reach its limit when calculating robust standard errors in R, especially when you are new in R.Lstandard error (SE) calculator — to estimate the sample mean dispersion from the population mean for statistical data analysis. In more general, the standard error (SE) along with The below step by step procedures help users to understand how to calculate standard error using above formulas.

## How can I estimate the standard error of transformed regression

Often in addition to reporting parameters fit by a model, we need to report some transformation of these parameters.Standard deviation (σ) measures how far a ‘typical’ observation is from the average of the data (μ).Standard errors are easy to calculate and commonly used because: If the standard error of several individual quantities is known, then the The uncertainty in the mean can be used to know how close the average of the samples are to the average that would come from measuring the whole group.How do I solve the double integration in order to calculate the error term. I know there are functions in r to do integrate but I am not sure how do I implement it You don’t need to calculate the values of the function, just define it: B3t <- function(t) (t**3 - 1.6*t**2 +0.76*t+1 ) .

TTo make graphs with ggplot2, the data must be in a data frame, and in “long” (as opposed to wide) This section explains how the within-subjects error bar values are calculated.Is it sufficient to prepare the standards in a pure solvent, or does the matrix need to be closely matched to that of the test samples? Ideally the standards should be independent, i.e., they should not be prepared from a common stock solution.Standard Errors. We have shown how to find the least squares estimates with matrix algebra.

## Calculate standard error of mean (SEM) in Excel | Excelchat

Learn how to calculate standard error of mean by using the STDEV.S, SQRT and COUNT functions in Excel. The Standard Error of Mean, also known as SEM is another measure of variability of data. It is an estimate of the deviation of a sample mean from the population mean.Residual standard error: 3.598e-16 on 8 degrees of freedom Multiple R-squared: 1, Adjusted R-squared: 1 F-statistic: 6.374e+32 on 1 and 8 DF, p-value: < 2.2e-16.To calculate the standard deviation for an entire population, use formulas in this category: STDEV.P, STDEVPA, and STDEVP. In return, Excel will provide the standard deviation of the applied data, as well as the average.But before jumping in to the syntax, lets try to understand these variables graphically.

How to calculate standard errors of the pricing errors? 12.1 Time-Series Regressions. Express the asset pricing model as: The Betas are defined by regression coefficients: (12.1)In the model, the factor is an excess return, the test assets are all excess returns.How to Calculate Standard Error in R You can easily calculate the standard error of the true mean using functions contained within the base R package. Use the SD function (standard deviation in R) for standalone computations.What I am trying to do : Write a line of code that calculates the standard error se of a sample average when you poll 25 people in the population. Generate a sequence of 100 proportions of Democrats p that vary from 0 (no Democrats) to 1 (all Democrats). Plot se versus p for the 100 different proportions.Details: Calculate standard error of the mean in Excel As you know, the Standard Error = Standard deviation / square root of total number of samples, therefore we can translate it to Excel formula as › Get more: Standard error of estimate calculatorShow All. How to Calculate Standard Error in Excel.

## How to find the standard error of mean in R?

The easiest way to find the standard error of mean is using the formula to find its value. We will find the standard errors for a normal random variable, sequence of numbers from one to hundred, a random sample, a binomial random variable, and uniform random variable using the same formula.Calculate Standard Error in R Delft Stack. DelftStack is a collective effort contributed by software geeks like you.Standard error calculation. Procedure: Step 1: Calculate the mean (Total of all Step 2: Calculate each measurement’s deviation from the mean (Mean minus the individual measurement). Step 6: Take the square root of the number in step 5. That gives you the “standard deviation (S.D.).How to compute the z-score with R. Posted on February 16, 2020 by Anisa Dhana in R bloggers | 0 In short, the z-score is a measure that shows how much away (below or above) of the mean is a To calculate the z-score of BMI, we need to have the average of BMI, the standard deviation of BMI.

Learn more about standard error of mean, 2 way anova Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox.This is otherwise calculated by comparing the F-statistic to an F distribution with regression df in numerator degrees and residual df in Standard Error — provides the estimated standard deviation of the distribution of coefficients. It is the amount by which the coefficient varies across different cases.The second part illustrates how to replicate some standard-errors obtained from other estimation methods with fixest. There are two components defining the standard-errors in fixest.Calculating the confidence interval when using a t-test is similar to using a normal distribution. Before we can do that we must first compute a standard error and a t-score. We will find general formulae which is necessary in order to do all three calculations at once.

## Excel – How To Plot A Line Graph With Standard Deviation

In this tutorial, in excel we are going to learn… How to plot a line graph with error bars to represent the… Standard deviation. Here i have some example blood lactate data for ten… Participants across a range of six different incremental speeds. You can see that down at the bottom i have calculated both…

average and standard deviation. If you are unsure of how to do this yourself within excel… Please see one of my other videos because i will show… You how to do that in a few simple steps. Again, for the purposes of this video…

i have used blood lactate values but this can be used… With a variety of different variables. On the right hand side you can see and example of a… Line graph with error bars to represent standard deviation, which i have already plotted. You can see i have also put some titles on there, which i will show you how to do.

that's included a main title and both horizontal and… Vertical axis titles. To show you how to create the line graph and i am going… To delete this and start from the beginning. There will be a variety of different ways of plotting…

things but this is just a way that i use which is a nice… Simple way to show you how to do it. In order to plot the values i am simply going to click on… The first cell, drag and release on the final cell. That will highlight them.

next i will come up to the insert tab. Then over to charts where there is a selection of charts… You can use. Again, for today we are going to be using a line chart. In which you can chose without markers, or with.

i find that when you have got a small data set, it's quite handy to have markers on. So here you can see simply we have got a line chart, without error bars, which we are going to then include now. If i select off the chart you can see that there are no… Options at the side. You need to click anywhere on the box and then you will see that these three options appear.

if you select this top one (the cross), it brings up the chart elements and it brings up… These options here. We know that we want to include error bars, so i'm going to come across here. We can see that as i hover over error bars that it's in fact… Including some default values which we're not interested in, because we want our own standard deviation values.

so i'm going to come across to this arrow and then it will bring up some further options. Again, if i hover over them you can… See it does say standard deviation, but it's not what we are interested in, because we want our own standard deviation values. Come down to more options. It will bring these up here.

at the top you can see that there are a few different… Options: the direction for both, minus and plus. We are going to have both… Minus and plus, so we are going to leave the… Option for both ticked.

the end style i would tend to leave a cap on, but you can see that you can take the cap off. Which will just take the line off the top and bottom. The bit of interest is down here at the bottom, the error amount. You can see that there are a… Few different options and as mentioned before we're after…

a custom value, so i'm going to select custom and specify value. On this pop up here, i am simply going to come… Across to this icon and then select it. I going to now select the standard deviation values of… Interest.

i'm going to click on the first one, keep holding down, and then i am going to release on the final value. You will see that it will highlight the 6 values that we want to plot. I'm going to repeat and do exactly the same for the… Negative error values. Again, i've highlighted the 6 values of interest.

once i select that icon and press ok you can see that it has now plotted the standard deviation on there. I am going to close this down here, but please note that you can use this to make other… Changes to your graph if you wish. Here you can see, we have got our line graph… Which represents the average data and also error bars…

which represent the standard deviation. Next we will have a quick look at how to include horizontal… And vertical axis titles. This is always good practice… To include when presenting graphs because you need to…

be able to see what the data is, which you're presenting. First i am going to start with a… Simple change i am going to make. At the bottom you can see that it is just showing stages… 1 up to 6, when in fact we know that it…

is speeds from 9 up to 14 km/hr. The way that i am going to do this is again by right clicking, you can do it when plotting the graph but a nice simple… Way to do it afterwards is to right click and select data. You will see here now it's saying horizontal (category)… Axis labels and that's where it is saying 1-6.

if i click edit i can select the ones that i want to include. As i select them, the moment i release them, you will see it updates on the graph, and i will select ok. Then ok again, to close this box. That's a nice simple one. Next i have already written…

out the chart title here i will copy it, but simply you would select the title and type in your title here. In order to put axis titles to present for the horizontal and vertical axes if… You select the plus for chart elements it will bring down the drop down. Then select axis titles. We know from before that this is blood lactate, don't forget your units, that is in mmol.

then also down the bottom, speed which for us here is km/hr. There we go, a nice simple way to plot a… Line graph with standard deviation presented as error bars. . In this tutorial, in excel we are going to learn… How to plot a line graph with error bars to represent the… Standard deviation. Here i have some example blood lactate data for ten… Participants across a range of six different incremental speeds. You can see that down at the bottom i have calculated both…

average and standard deviation. If you are unsure of how to do this yourself within excel… Please see one of my other videos because i will show… You how to do that in a few simple steps. Again, for the purposes of this video…

i have used blood lactate values but this can be used… With a variety of different variables. On the right hand side you can see and example of a… Line graph with error bars to represent standard deviation, which i have already plotted. You can see i have also put some titles on there, which i will show you how to do.

that's included a main title and both horizontal and… Vertical axis titles. To show you how to create the line graph and i am going… To delete this and start from the beginning. There will be a variety of different ways of plotting…

things but this is just a way that i use which is a nice… Simple way to show you how to do it. In order to plot the values i am simply going to click on… The first cell, drag and release on the final cell. That will highlight them.

next i will come up to the insert tab. Then over to charts where there is a selection of charts… You can use. Again, for today we are going to be using a line chart. In which you can chose without markers, or with.

i find that when you have got a small data set, it's quite handy to have markers on. So here you can see simply we have got a line chart, without error bars, which we are going to then include now. If i select off the chart you can see that there are no… Options at the side. You need to click anywhere on the box and then you will see that these three options appear.

if you select this top one (the cross), it brings up the chart elements and it brings up… These options here. We know that we want to include error bars, so i'm going to come across here. We can see that as i hover over error bars that it's in fact… Including some default values which we're not interested in, because we want our own standard deviation values.

so i'm going to come across to this arrow and then it will bring up some further options. Again, if i hover over them you can… See it does say standard deviation, but it's not what we are interested in, because we want our own standard deviation values. Come down to more options. It will bring these up here.

at the top you can see that there are a few different… Options: the direction for both, minus and plus. We are going to have both… Minus and plus, so we are going to leave the… Option for both ticked.

the end style i would tend to leave a cap on, but you can see that you can take the cap off. Which will just take the line off the top and bottom. The bit of interest is down here at the bottom, the error amount. You can see that there are a… Few different options and as mentioned before we're after…

a custom value, so i'm going to select custom and specify value. On this pop up here, i am simply going to come… Across to this icon and then select it. I going to now select the standard deviation values of… Interest.

i'm going to click on the first one, keep holding down, and then i am going to release on the final value. You will see that it will highlight the 6 values that we want to plot. I'm going to repeat and do exactly the same for the… Negative error values. Again, i've highlighted the 6 values of interest.

once i select that icon and press ok you can see that it has now plotted the standard deviation on there. I am going to close this down here, but please note that you can use this to make other… Changes to your graph if you wish. Here you can see, we have got our line graph… Which represents the average data and also error bars…

which represent the standard deviation. Next we will have a quick look at how to include horizontal… And vertical axis titles. This is always good practice… To include when presenting graphs because you need to…

be able to see what the data is, which you're presenting. First i am going to start with a… Simple change i am going to make. At the bottom you can see that it is just showing stages… 1 up to 6, when in fact we know that it…

is speeds from 9 up to 14 km/hr. The way that i am going to do this is again by right clicking, you can do it when plotting the graph but a nice simple… Way to do it afterwards is to right click and select data. You will see here now it's saying horizontal (category)… Axis labels and that's where it is saying 1-6.

if i click edit i can select the ones that i want to include. As i select them, the moment i release them, you will see it updates on the graph, and i will select ok. Then ok again, to close this box. That's a nice simple one. Next i have already written…

out the chart title here i will copy it, but simply you would select the title and type in your title here. In order to put axis titles to present for the horizontal and vertical axes if… You select the plus for chart elements it will bring down the drop down. Then select axis titles. We know from before that this is blood lactate, don't forget your units, that is in mmol.

then also down the bottom, speed which for us here is km/hr. There we go, a nice simple way to plot a… Line graph with standard deviation presented as error bars. .

## Portfolio Standard Deviation – Meaning, Formula, Examples, How To Calculate?

Hello everyone hi welcome to the channelof wallstreetmojo or watch the video till the end and also if you are new tothis channel then you can subscribe us by clicking the bell icon today we havea topic with ours is called portfolio standard deviation now see portfoliostandard deviation it measures the expected variability in the rate ofreturn of the portfolio and it is determined based on the standarddeviation of the return of each asset in the portfolio you well this is just adialog box that's written but we will try and get incorporated with the wholeconcept unit very detailed format so portfolio standard deviation now seeportfolio standard deviation is the standard deviation of the the rate ofreturn on the investment portfolio and is used to measure the inherentvolatility of an investment so it measures the investment risks okay andit helps the analyzing the stability of the return of the portfolio so portfoliostandard deviation is calculated based on the standard deviation of the returnof each asset is the portfolio so the proportion of the each asset in theoverall portfolio that has the respective weights in the totalportfolio and also the correlation between each pair of the asset in theportfolio let's do some interpretation part of the standard deviation of theportfolio see this helps in determining the risk of the investment that is whatwe call as the expected the returns so a high portfolio standard deviationhighlights that you know the portfolio risk the portfolio risk is high andreturn is more volatile in nature as such you know the unstable as well soportfolio with a low standard deviation the low sd the portfolio with the lowstandard deviation implies that you know less volatility and more stability interms of the returns of the portfolio and it is very useful financial metricwhen comparing different portfolios we'll go with an example part or to getmore insight see let's say there's a guy called john john had planned to invest acertain amount of money let's say in let's say john plans to invest a certainamount of money every month in one of the two funds which he is shortlistedfor the investment purpose drop down some particular details let's say theaverage return for last 3 years fund a and fund b over here it comes down to12% over here 12% and the standard deviation has 814 so assuming thestability of the return is the most important for john while making theinvestment and keeping one or the other factors as constant we can easily seethat both the funds are having in the average rate of returnclosely standing at 12% okay so you know fund a has standard deviation of let'ssay 8 dsd standing at 8 which means it's average it and can vary between 4%to 28% right by adding and subtracting it from the average itand on the other hand let's say fun b if you see here a standard deviation of 14which means that a return can vary between -2 to 26% by adding andsubtracting 14 from the average return if you – here from 14that is you know you need to deduct that way so does based on on his riskappetite if john wishes to avoid excessive exist volatility will preferinvestment in fund compared to fund b as it offers you know the same averagereturn with a less amount of volatility and more stability on the returns foryou see 1212 but you know as hd less is these more here but the standarddeviation of the board for is important as it helps you know analyzing thecontribution of individual assets there are two the portfolio standard deviationand is impacted by the correlation with other assets in the portfolio and itsproportion of the weight in the portfolio okay now how to calculate theportfolio standard deviation okay we'll try and understand this first we'll tryand not down some some things you know portfolio standard deviation calculationyou know it's a multi-step process and involves the like you know the formulabasically so assuming that you know the portfolio comprises of two assets onlythe standard deviation of the two asset portfolio can be computed using theportfolio standard deviation formula let me show you that this is the formulathat you can use the standard deviation of the portfolio there is a weight intostandard deviation of a then weight into standard deviation that ismultiplication of b plus 2 into weight of a into weight of b into either youcan multiply covariance over here or correlation into this is the covarianceof a and b into standard deviation of a into standard deviation of b so find thestandard deviation of each of the portfolio find the weight of the eachportfolio which we require here okay and weight of each asset in the overallportfolio and define the correlation between them that is over here okaycorrelation of the assets in the above case between the assets in the portfolioand correlation can vary between minus 1 to plus 1 so apply the values in theabove-mentioned to derive the standard deviation formula of the two assetportfolio so let's understand the portfoliostandard deviation calculation of the three portfolio of the three as aportfolio with the help of an example now calculating the portfolio standarddeviation of the d3 asset portfolio is will go somethingnow this multi-step process how does exactly works we'll try and understandthis in a very detail format over here there are three stocks you know flamethis is let's say this is flame international okay it's considering youknow a portfolio comprising of three stocks let's say a b and c and this isthe brief details of weights all they're gonna invest the expected return theyare expecting the and the standard deviation the correlation between a andb a and c and b and c is available with us so now for a three asset portfoliothis can be computed by weight of a into standard deviation of a weight of b intostandard deviation of b rate of c into standard deviation of c plus it remainsthe same – into w into wb into covariance this is covariance of a and binto standard deviation of a and b plus 2 into w a in to see here the second oneinto the correlation of a and c that is point 3 multiplied by standard deviationof a and c and then it goes with a b and c that is weight of b weight of c +sorry you multiply that with the correlation point – 1 5 and then thestandard deviation of b and c that is 13% and 15% so this is howyou are going to compute your entire value where you over here w a again irepeat and w b w c are the weights of stock abc respectively in the portfoliothis k a k b and casey are the standard deviation that is you know sigma overhere of abc and this rk a and rk c are the correlation sorry not the covariancecorrelation between stock a and stock v and a and c and b and c respectivelyokay so if you compute over here the holeit should come closely around 15 to 18% from the number it looks like sowe know we see that you know standard deviation of portfolio is closely around15 to 18% despite you know the individual asset in the portfolio thereis there is having different level of standard deviation that is stock a24 stock b 18 and stock c 15% due to the correlation betweenthem in the portfolio so after taking the example i want to finally concludeon this particular topic c standard deviation of portfolio is important tooand undoubtedly which helps in matching the risk helps in matching the risklevel of the portfolio with clients risk appetite and its measures measures thetotal risk in the portfolio comprising of both systematic and unsystematic risknow a larger standard deviation implies that you know more volatility and moredispersion in the returns and does you know more risky in the nature so ithelps in measuring the what we call as consistency in which the returns aregenerated and is a very good measure to analyze the performance of the mutualfund and also the hedge funds returns consistent however i know it ispersistent in order to load that you know the standard deviation is based outof the historic data and past results may bepredicted for the future results but they may also change over time andtherefore we know it can alter the standard deviation so one should be morecareful before making any investment decisions based on the same so that's itfor this particular topic after discussing all the data regardingmeaning interpretation a short example we had gone a stepwise calculation oftwo standard deviation in three stocks that is two stocks in three stockscalculation so that's it for this particular topic if you have learned andenjoyed watching this video please like and comment on this video and subscribeto our channel for the latest updates thank you everyonecheers. Hello everyone hi welcome to the channelof wallstreetmojo or watch the video till the end and also if you are new tothis channel then you can subscribe us by clicking the bell icon today we havea topic with ours is called portfolio standard deviation now see portfoliostandard deviation it measures the expected variability in the rate ofreturn of the portfolio and it is determined based on the standarddeviation of the return of each asset in the portfolio you well this is just adialog box that's written but we will try and get incorporated with the wholeconcept unit very detailed format so portfolio standard deviation now seeportfolio standard deviation is the standard deviation of the the rate ofreturn on the investment portfolio and is used to measure the inherentvolatility of an investment so it measures the investment risks okay andit helps the analyzing the stability of the return of the portfolio so portfoliostandard deviation is calculated based on the standard deviation of the returnof each asset is the portfolio so the proportion of the each asset in theoverall portfolio that has the respective weights in the totalportfolio and also the correlation between each pair of the asset in theportfolio let's do some interpretation part of the standard deviation of theportfolio see this helps in determining the risk of the investment that is whatwe call as the expected the returns so a high portfolio standard deviationhighlights that you know the portfolio risk the portfolio risk is high andreturn is more volatile in nature as such you know the unstable as well soportfolio with a low standard deviation the low sd the portfolio with the lowstandard deviation implies that you know less volatility and more stability interms of the returns of the portfolio and it is very useful financial metricwhen comparing different portfolios we'll go with an example part or to getmore insight see let's say there's a guy called john john had planned to invest acertain amount of money let's say in let's say john plans to invest a certainamount of money every month in one of the two funds which he is shortlistedfor the investment purpose drop down some particular details let's say theaverage return for last 3 years fund a and fund b over here it comes down to12% over here 12% and the standard deviation has 814 so assuming thestability of the return is the most important for john while making theinvestment and keeping one or the other factors as constant we can easily seethat both the funds are having in the average rate of returnclosely standing at 12% okay so you know fund a has standard deviation of let'ssay 8 dsd standing at 8 which means it's average it and can vary between 4%to 28% right by adding and subtracting it from the average itand on the other hand let's say fun b if you see here a standard deviation of 14which means that a return can vary between -2 to 26% by adding andsubtracting 14 from the average return if you – here from 14that is you know you need to deduct that way so does based on on his riskappetite if john wishes to avoid excessive exist volatility will preferinvestment in fund compared to fund b as it offers you know the same averagereturn with a less amount of volatility and more stability on the returns foryou see 1212 but you know as hd less is these more here but the standarddeviation of the board for is important as it helps you know analyzing thecontribution of individual assets there are two the portfolio standard deviationand is impacted by the correlation with other assets in the portfolio and itsproportion of the weight in the portfolio okay now how to calculate theportfolio standard deviation okay we'll try and understand this first we'll tryand not down some some things you know portfolio standard deviation calculationyou know it's a multi-step process and involves the like you know the formulabasically so assuming that you know the portfolio comprises of two assets onlythe standard deviation of the two asset portfolio can be computed using theportfolio standard deviation formula let me show you that this is the formulathat you can use the standard deviation of the portfolio there is a weight intostandard deviation of a then weight into standard deviation that ismultiplication of b plus 2 into weight of a into weight of b into either youcan multiply covariance over here or correlation into this is the covarianceof a and b into standard deviation of a into standard deviation of b so find thestandard deviation of each of the portfolio find the weight of the eachportfolio which we require here okay and weight of each asset in the overallportfolio and define the correlation between them that is over here okaycorrelation of the assets in the above case between the assets in the portfolioand correlation can vary between minus 1 to plus 1 so apply the values in theabove-mentioned to derive the standard deviation formula of the two assetportfolio so let's understand the portfoliostandard deviation calculation of the three portfolio of the three as aportfolio with the help of an example now calculating the portfolio standarddeviation of the d3 asset portfolio is will go somethingnow this multi-step process how does exactly works we'll try and understandthis in a very detail format over here there are three stocks you know flamethis is let's say this is flame international okay it's considering youknow a portfolio comprising of three stocks let's say a b and c and this isthe brief details of weights all they're gonna invest the expected return theyare expecting the and the standard deviation the correlation between a andb a and c and b and c is available with us so now for a three asset portfoliothis can be computed by weight of a into standard deviation of a weight of b intostandard deviation of b rate of c into standard deviation of c plus it remainsthe same – into w into wb into covariance this is covariance of a and binto standard deviation of a and b plus 2 into w a in to see here the second oneinto the correlation of a and c that is point 3 multiplied by standard deviationof a and c and then it goes with a b and c that is weight of b weight of c +sorry you multiply that with the correlation point – 1 5 and then thestandard deviation of b and c that is 13% and 15% so this is howyou are going to compute your entire value where you over here w a again irepeat and w b w c are the weights of stock abc respectively in the portfoliothis k a k b and casey are the standard deviation that is you know sigma overhere of abc and this rk a and rk c are the correlation sorry not the covariancecorrelation between stock a and stock v and a and c and b and c respectivelyokay so if you compute over here the holeit should come closely around 15 to 18% from the number it looks like sowe know we see that you know standard deviation of portfolio is closely around15 to 18% despite you know the individual asset in the portfolio thereis there is having different level of standard deviation that is stock a24 stock b 18 and stock c 15% due to the correlation betweenthem in the portfolio so after taking the example i want to finally concludeon this particular topic c standard deviation of portfolio is important tooand undoubtedly which helps in matching the risk helps in matching the risklevel of the portfolio with clients risk appetite and its measures measures thetotal risk in the portfolio comprising of both systematic and unsystematic risknow a larger standard deviation implies that you know more volatility and moredispersion in the returns and does you know more risky in the nature so ithelps in measuring the what we call as consistency in which the returns aregenerated and is a very good measure to analyze the performance of the mutualfund and also the hedge funds returns consistent however i know it ispersistent in order to load that you know the standard deviation is based outof the historic data and past results may bepredicted for the future results but they may also change over time andtherefore we know it can alter the standard deviation so one should be morecareful before making any investment decisions based on the same so that's itfor this particular topic after discussing all the data regardingmeaning interpretation a short example we had gone a stepwise calculation oftwo standard deviation in three stocks that is two stocks in three stockscalculation so that's it for this particular topic if you have learned andenjoyed watching this video please like and comment on this video and subscribeto our channel for the latest updates thank you everyonecheers.

## Learn How To Type An Equation In Microsoft Word

Hi and welcome to another edition of hackingmaths. Today’s lesson is how to use the equation editor in microsoft word to write a formula. This method works in word 2007 or later. I have word loaded and to the right i have the formula for calculating the standard deviation of x. Now i won’t go into how to use the formula, that is covered in another lesson, today i am just going to show you how to write the equation in word. So depending on the operating system you are using the layout of word changes slightly.

to find the equation editor on the mac you go to: document elements and then move along to the right until you find equation. On the pc the only difference is you would click insert and then go along to the right until you find equation. And you are looking for the greek letter pi. Ok let’s get started writing the formula in word. I look at my equation and i see an s with an x that has been lowered that x is in something called subscript.

so let's begin to put our formula into word. I click document elements, as i am using a mac. I scroll to the right and i click equation. I get this blue box that pops up here. Now, i want to type the s with the x as subscript.

i need to find the icon the says script and click it. And it gives me different choices. I need to choose the second one. This gives me a box and a lower box. In the first box, if i click it i then type s and in the lower box i type x.

now, i need to put an equals sign. If i just typed equals just now it would be on the subscript. What i really need to do is just press the right arrow key. And then press equals. Take a moment and look at the formula.

the main that comes next is a square root sign. Everything is contained inside it. So let's put one of them on the page. These can be found by clicking the radical icon. Click it.

and select the first one. We now have the square root with a dotted box inside. Inside the dotted box we are going to write the rest of the equation. Click the dotted box. The next thing that we see is a fraction.

click the fraction icon and select the first one. Now press the minus key and then the letter x. We now have the main bulk of the equation created. Let’s finish it off. Click the dotted box on the top of the fraction.

then click the operator icon and choose the first one. This inserts the sum symbol in the equation. Now click the box beside it. We want to put an x squared there. Squares are put of the script family so select the script icon and choose the first one.

still on the top part of the fraction we need to click the big dotted box and type the x. Then click the small dotted box that's above and type the number 2. That’s the top of the fraction dealt with. Now let's deal with the bottom. Click the dotted box and type the letter n.

only two more things to do and we are done. Look at our formula we can see that the x at the end is squared but it also has a line over it. Highlight the x, by left clicking and dragging, it should go blue like mine has. Click the accent icon and find the one with the line above it and select bar. Re-highlight the x, again by left clicking and dragging.

note how the highlight looks on mine, you need to replicate that before you do the next step. Now select the script icon and select the first one. And in the small box type the number 2. Well done, you’ve written your first equation in word. That’s all for this lesson.

i’ll see you next time on hackingmaths. . Hi and welcome to another edition of hackingmaths. Today’s lesson is how to use the equation editor in microsoft word to write a formula. This method works in word 2007 or later. I have word loaded and to the right i have the formula for calculating the standard deviation of x. Now i won’t go into how to use the formula, that is covered in another lesson, today i am just going to show you how to write the equation in word. So depending on the operating system you are using the layout of word changes slightly.

to find the equation editor on the mac you go to: document elements and then move along to the right until you find equation. On the pc the only difference is you would click insert and then go along to the right until you find equation. And you are looking for the greek letter pi. Ok let’s get started writing the formula in word. I look at my equation and i see an s with an x that has been lowered that x is in something called subscript.

so let's begin to put our formula into word. I click document elements, as i am using a mac. I scroll to the right and i click equation. I get this blue box that pops up here. Now, i want to type the s with the x as subscript.

i need to find the icon the says script and click it. And it gives me different choices. I need to choose the second one. This gives me a box and a lower box. In the first box, if i click it i then type s and in the lower box i type x.

now, i need to put an equals sign. If i just typed equals just now it would be on the subscript. What i really need to do is just press the right arrow key. And then press equals. Take a moment and look at the formula.

the main that comes next is a square root sign. Everything is contained inside it. So let's put one of them on the page. These can be found by clicking the radical icon. Click it.

and select the first one. We now have the square root with a dotted box inside. Inside the dotted box we are going to write the rest of the equation. Click the dotted box. The next thing that we see is a fraction.

click the fraction icon and select the first one. Now press the minus key and then the letter x. We now have the main bulk of the equation created. Let’s finish it off. Click the dotted box on the top of the fraction.

then click the operator icon and choose the first one. This inserts the sum symbol in the equation. Now click the box beside it. We want to put an x squared there. Squares are put of the script family so select the script icon and choose the first one.

still on the top part of the fraction we need to click the big dotted box and type the x. Then click the small dotted box that's above and type the number 2. That’s the top of the fraction dealt with. Now let's deal with the bottom. Click the dotted box and type the letter n.

only two more things to do and we are done. Look at our formula we can see that the x at the end is squared but it also has a line over it. Highlight the x, by left clicking and dragging, it should go blue like mine has. Click the accent icon and find the one with the line above it and select bar. Re-highlight the x, again by left clicking and dragging.

note how the highlight looks on mine, you need to replicate that before you do the next step. Now select the script icon and select the first one. And in the small box type the number 2. Well done, you’ve written your first equation in word. That’s all for this lesson.

i’ll see you next time on hackingmaths. .